Let's start with Defense Draw:
Activate only during damage calculation during your opponent's turn. The Battle Damage you would receive becomes 0. Draw 1 card.
In order to activate Defense Draw, you must be about to take Battle Damage, and you must be able to draw Cards. Defense Draw is activated at the "Damage Calculation" Sub-Step. In order to determine if you are going to take Battle Damage, Defense Draw is activated after comparing the ATK of the monsters battling (and determining the Battle Damage), but before inflicting the Damage and moving into the "After Damage Calculation" Sub-Step. This means that if your Tragoedia is attacked, activating Defense Draw won't increase its ATK and help it win the battle.
Next we have Remote Revenge:
Activate only when a monster you control is targeted by a Spell, Trap, or Effect Monster's effect that destroys 1 monster on the field. Switch the target to an appropriate monster your opponent controls.
Remote Revenge basically re-targets a monster that is going to be affected by another effect. This, of course, means that Remote Revenge itself targets. Since Remote Revenge asks that the effect destroys "1" monster, the effect cannot target more than one Card (not even Spell and Trap Cards). An additional burden is that the target must be appropriate. For example, if your opponent uses Nobleman of Crossout on your face-down Defense Position monster, then you must target a face-down monster your opponent controls (because Nobleman can only destroy face-down monsters). Remote Revenge also cannot be activated during the Damage Step against effects like Man-Eater Bug.
As a quick break, let's look at the simple Graceful Revival:
Select 1 Level 2 or lower monster from your Graveyard and Special Summon it in Attack Position. When this card is removed from the field, destroy that monster. When that monster is removed from the field, destroy this card.
Graceful Revival is very similar to Call of the Haunted: It targets a monster in the Graveyard, and continues targeting it once it has been successfully Summoned. It also has the classic "doom clauses" of Removing either Card from the Field will destroy the other one. Flipping the monster face-down will stop the targeting, so if one Card is gone, the other one will stay.
Now, let's take a look at Equip Shot:
Activate only during the Battle Phase. Select 1 Equip Card equipped to a face-up Attack Position monster you control, and select 1 face-up Attack Position monster your opponent controls. Equip that monster with the selected Equip Card. Then, conduct battle between your previously equipped monster and the selected monster (other effects cannot be activated during this battle).
Equip Shot has many small details that may end up being overlooked. First, it can only be activated during the Battle Phase, but only outside of the Damage Step. You then target an Equip Card you control and an opponent's monster (which must be a legal target for the Equip Card). The Equip Card is re-targeted to the opponent's monster. You then have both monsters battle each other.
This battle is not your usual attack. Instead, you immediately move into Damage Calculation and begin comparing the ATK of the monsters. This disrupts most effects that activate while battling (Ally of Justice Catastor, Mirror Force, etc.) because no monster is declaring an attack. This is also a loophole that allows you to attack while you can't declare an attack. For example, if you have just used the effect of Chaos Sorcerer, you can enter the Battle Phase, and use Equip Shot to have Chaos Sorcerer battle a monster. Additionally, since this doesn't count as declaring an attack, the monster can perform it's usual once-per-turn attack aside from this battle.
Next, we have Synchro Strike:
Target Synchro Summoned monster gains 500 ATK for each Synchro Material Monster used to Summon it, until the End Phase.
Synchro Strike targets a Synchro monster on the Field. It can be activated during the Damage Step, before Damage Calculation. If the Synchro monster stopped being face-up after it was Synchro Summoned, then it will "forget" how many Synchro Materials it has used, so you cannot use Synchro Strike on it. Also, note that if you use a Synchro Monster as a Synchro Material for a new Synchro, then Synchro Strike won't count the first materials for the ATK bonus. That is to say, if you use Junk Synchron and Speed Warrior for Junk Warrior, then use Junk Warrior and Nitro Synchron for Nitro Warrior, when you target Nitro Warrior with Synchro Strike you would only count two Synchro Materials: Junk Warrior and Nitro Synchron. Do not count Junk Synchron and Speed Warrior.
Moving on, we have Urgent Tuning:
Activate only during the Battle Phase. Synchro Summon 1 Synchro Monster. (Send the appropriate Synchro Material Monsters to the Graveyard.)
Urgent Tuning is one of those Cards we all know and love: Short text, long implications. As its text suggests, you activate it during the Battle Phase (outside of the Damage Step) and then you Synchro Summon a Synchro monster. However, this follows all of the other rules of Synchro Summoning: You must use the appropriate Synchro Materials, they must be face-up, they are sent to the Graveyard, etc. The Synchro Summon is performed when Urgent Tuning resolves. If Urgent Tuning is link 2 or higher, then neither player can respond to the Summon with Cards like Torrential Tribute or Bottomless Trap Hole. Finally, since this is a proper Synchro Summon, the Synchro Monster can be Special Summoned later with effects like Monster Reborn and the like.
Now, let's look at Battle Mania:
Activate only during your opponent's Standby Phase. All face-up monsters your opponent controls are changed to Attack Position, and cannot change their battle positions this turn. All monsters your opponent currently controls must attack this turn, if able.
Battle Mania first switches your opponent's face-up monsters to Attack Position. Then, it sets a number of Conditions on them, forcing them to battle this turn and making them unable to switch positions (even if they already were in Attack Position). Monsters that appear face-up on the Field after Battle Mania resolves are not affected by it. If you control a monster affected by Battle Mania, it simply means that you cannot end your turn without attacking with it. If the monster is not able to attack (due to Swords of Revealing Light or similar), then this is void, of course. The monster's position can still be changed by Card effects.
Then, we have Confusion Chaff:
Activate only when your opponent declares a second direct attack during the same Battle Phase. Conduct battle between the attacking monster and the first monster that attacked directly (other effects cannot be activated during this battle).
Chaff is activated upon attack declaration. It forces two monsters to battle each other, similar to Equip Shot (moving into Damage Calculation immediately as well). If a monster has its attack negated, it is not considered to have attacked directly, but if the attack is stopped (Book of Moon, Gravity Bind, etc.), then the monster is eligible to battle with the other one.
Backtracking a lot, we have Scrap-Iron Scarecrow:
Activate only when an opponent's monster declares an attack. Negate the attack, and Set this card face-down again instead of sending it to the Graveyard.
Scarecrow is activated upon Attack Declaration and it targets (because of its Japanese text). It negates an attack, and after activation, it sets itself on the Field again. Like all Trap Cards, it cannot be activated during the turn it is set on the Field, so you cannot activate the same copy of Scarecrow more than once per turn. In order to set itself on the Field, Scarecrow itself must remain on the Field until it resolves. If it is destroyed by Dust Tornado or similar, it will stay in the Graveyard.
Now, let's look at Give and Take:
Special Summon 1 monster from your Graveyard to your opponent's side of the field in Defense Position, and increase the Level of 1 monster you control by the Level of the Special Summoned monster, until the End Phase.
Give and Take targets two monsters, one in your Graveyard, and one on your side of the Field (which must be face-up). You Special Summon the one in the Graveyard, and increase the Level of the one on the Field, only if the Summon is successful. These two actions are considered to be simultaneous, so either player can respond to the Summon. The Summon is considered to be performed by the player activating Give and Take, so his/her opponent can use Bottomless Trap Hole on the Summoned monster, even if the Summoned monster is on the same side of the Field as BTH.
We then have Limiter Overload:
When this card is sent to your Graveyard, Special Summon "Speed Warrior" from your hand, Deck or Graveyard.
Overload has a Trigger-like effect that is activated at the Graveyard, when it's sent to the Graveyard by any means from any location. Overload itself cannot be "activated" like a regular Normal Trap Card. It must meet its trigger. This effect doesn't target, as it can Summon a Speed Warrior from the Hand and Deck. Overload cannot activate its effect under Cold Wave. Overload can activate its effect during the turn it is set, because you aren't activating the Trap Card itself (much like Dark Coffin).
Let's go with CRMS now, starting with Shining Silver Force:
Activate only when your opponent activates a Trap Card that inflicts damage. Negate the activation of that card and destroy it and all face-up Spell and Trap Cards your opponent controls.
Force must be chained directly to the activation of a Trap Card that will inflict effect damage when it resolves. Its rulings list pretty much everything it cannot respond to (uncertain damage and no damage when it resolves). It also cannot negate the effect of an already-active Trap Card like Backfire. Silver Force can be activated during the Damage Step.
We then have Spirit Force:
Activate only during damage calculation during your opponent's turn. You take no Battle Damage from that battle. Then, you can add 1 Warrior-Type Tuner monster with 1500 or less DEF from your Graveyard to your hand.
Spirit Force is very similar to Defense Draw, only that instead of drawing a Card, you search for a monster. This search is optional, so Force can be activated even if you can't perform it (such as if Thunder King Rai-Oh is face-up on the Field).
Now, let's look at Descending Lost Star:
Select 1 Synchro Monster in your Graveyard and Special Summon it in face-up Defense Position. Its effect is negated, its Level is reduced by 1 and its DEF becomes 0. Its battle position cannot be changed.
Lost Star targets a Synchro Monster. Then, it sets a pile of conditions on the monster, negating any effects that activate or are applied while on the Field (much like Forbidden Chalice), reducing its Level, setting its DEF to 0, and preventing it from changing positions. Flipping it face-down or Removing it from the Field will get rid of all of these conditions.
Raging Battle brings us Miracle Locus:
Select 1 face-up Attack Position monster you control. Your opponent draws 1 card. The selected monster gains 1000 ATK until the End Phase and can attack up to 2 monsters during this turn's Battle Phase. When it attacks or is attacked this turn, your opponent takes no Battle Damage.
Locus targets one of your monsters. When it resolves, your opponent draws a Card, your monster gains 1000 ATK, and the ability to attack two monsters, but becomes unable to inflict Battle Damage to your opponent. Locus can be activated during the Damage Step before Damage Calculation. Being able to attack two monsters is similar to the effect of Chimeratech Overdragon or Asura Priest: You can attack multiple monsters, but you cannot proceed to attack directly afterwards.
Ancient Prophecy brings us Reinforce Truth:
Special Summon 1 Level 2 or lower Warrior-Type monster from your Deck. You cannot conduct your Battle Phase the turn you activate this card.
Reinforce Truth doesn't target. Other than that, you cannot "cheat" its activation requirement by conducting your Battle Phase and activating it later, as usual. You can, however, activate it during your opponent's turn.
Then we have Skill Successor:
Select 1 face-up monster you control. It gains 400 ATK until the End Phase. You can remove from play this card in the Graveyard to give 1 face-up monster you control 800 ATK until the End Phase. This effect cannot be activated the turn this card is sent to the Graveyard, and can only be activated during your turn.
Both of these effects target and both can be activated during the Damage Step before Damage Calculation. The second effect is a Quick-like effect. If you are under the effect of Cold Wave, the second effect cannot be activated.
Stardust Overdrive brings us Slip Summon:
Activate only when your opponent Summons a monster. Special Summon 1 Level 4 or lower monster from your hand in face-up Defense Position. Return it to the owner's hand during the End Phase.
Slip Summon responds to the successful Summon of an opponent's monster. Then, it sets a condition on the monster that returns it to the Hand without using the chain. If the monster is no longer face-up, then it won't return to the Hand.
Then, we have Synchro Barrier:
Tribute 1 Synchro Monster you control. You do not take any damage until the End Phase of the next turn.
Synchro Barrier tributes a Synchro Monster as a cost. Then, you do not take any Battle Damage or Effect Damage for two turns. Other than that, this Card works very similarly to Hallowed Life Barrier.
The now not-so-recent Starter Deck brought us Wild Tornado:
Select 1 face-up card in the Spell & Trap Card Zones and destroy it. The controller of the destroyed card can then Set 1 Spell or Trap Card from their hand. If this Set card is destroyed and sent to the Graveyard, select and destroy 1 face-up card on the field.
Both of Tornado's effect target. The first effect has an additional clause in which a player can set an additional S/T Card, which is completely optional. The second effect is a Trigger-like effect that will activate even if Tornado is destroyed during the turn it is set (much like Limiter Overload).
Finally, the Duelist Pack Yusei 2 brings us two more Trap Cards. First we have Scrubbed Raid:
During the Battle Phase, you can send 1 card you control to the Graveyard, except this card, to end the Battle Phase.
This Continuous Trap Card has a Quick-like effect. Sending a Card to the Graveyard is a cost. You can send a Normal Trap Card or Quick-Play Spell Card that you have just activated to the Graveyard in order to activate Raid's effect. However, you cannot use a Card that cannot go to the Graveyard as a cost, such as a Battle Fader or Plaguespreader Zombie that were Summoned through their effects, or an Archlord Krystia. This obviously means that you cannot pay this effect's cost if Macro Cosmos is active. Being a Continuous Trap Card, Scrubbed Raid must remain face-up in order to resolve properly. Raid cannot activate its effect during the Damage Step, but it can be activated during either player's Battle Phase. If you end the Battle Phase in response to an attack, the attacking monster is no longer considered an attacking monster for the purpose of Cards like Dimensional Prison or Magic Cylinder (so it becomes an illegal target).
The last Card for today's article is Tuner's Barrier:
Select 1 face-up Tuner monster you control. That monster cannot be destroyed by battle or by card effects, until the End Phase of the next turn.
A simple effect. It targets a Tuner monster, and that monster receives a condition that prevents its destruction for about two turns. If the monster is no longer face-up, this condition is removed. This protection does not save the monster from being destroyed by Game Mechanics such as not paying a Maintenance Cost.
Well, that's all for today. A very long article after a very long wait Q_Q